It could cause a blockage in his/her intestines depending on how much your dog consumed. Which can be fatal if left alone. Keep track of how much your dog is going outside to poop and pee. If your dog is constipated and lethargic take him to your Vet right away.
That diaper absorbancy stuff can't be good for a dog..the simple fact that he vomits. Urine, on the other hand, comes out of our bodies sterile so, no harm there .